What are learning outcomes?
Learning outcomes describe what a student should know, understand or be able to do as a consequence of successfully completing their whole course, a particular level of their course, or an individual module. Well-defined learning outcomes articulate observable and measurable behaviours from which key assessment criteria can be derived. They also provide students with an appreciation of what learning is expected of them and helps to provide them with a focus for how they will develop as they progress through the course.
As students progress through the levels and between awards they are expected to become less dependent and more able to deal with unstructured and uncertain situations and these will be reflected in the learning outcomes. Consequently, establishing the learning outcomes of a course and those of its constituent awards, levels and modules is a fundamental part of the curriculum design process. Sheffield Hallam University’s course descriptor template requires course planners to identify the course level learning outcomes for the main/target award and each of the intermediate awards.
Why are learning outcomes important?
Learning outcomes help you to:
- be more precise when planning, supporting and assessing learning
- make effective linkages between your learning and teaching activities and assessment tasks and the feedback you give to your students.
- articulate the level of learning you expected from your students
- write your assessment criteria
- make explicit any underpinning values, attitudes and skills that are not reflected in descriptions of content
Writing learning outcomes
provide the starting point for the development of the learning outcomes for a Course Descriptor, Module Description or a specific learning activity. The level descriptors can help you to develop learning outcomes that articulate the knowledge, understanding, and skills you expect your students to be able to demonstrate at a particular level and as they progress through their programme of study.
What should they include?
Learning outcomes start with phrases such as ‘by successfully engaging with this course/module, the learner will be able to’ followed by:
- an active verb or phrase
- an object of the verb
- a clause or phrase that provides the context or condition
|explain and evaluate
||between the company directors and shareholders
|describe and illustrate
||of behaviourist psychology
Often it is the verb and the object that shows the behaviour/values/attitudes required from the learner and the context or condition that shows the degree of autonomy required and the complexity and/or significance of the situation. Learning outcomes should be expressed in clear and simple terms, to ensure that all involved (e.g. learners, tutors, employers, etc.) understand them – the use of academic jargon and complex language in learning outcomes is unhelpful. If you are writing a module, learning outcomes should relate to the overall learning outcomes in the Course Descriptor. When developing a learning activity, the learning outcomes should relate to those in the module description.
Remember you may not get learning outcomes right the first time and may need to re‐visit them in the light of your developing learning, teaching and assessment/feedback strategies. You may also find that when writing effective learning outcomes you may need to revisit and revise your aims.
Further guidance and examples can be found on our ‘A guide to Learning Outcomes’